‘Gumezishn’ and the two principles in Mani’s Shâbuhragan

 

And Az herself mingled her own being [ into them].

(‘wsh’n xwd ‘z xwysh gryw ‘ndr ‘myxt )

 

M 7981 I R i verse 241-241

 

 

 

Gumezishn (mixture) and the two principles in Mani’s Shâbuhragân.

 

Mani’s cosmogony is known from a wide range of primary and secondary sources, all of which represent mainly the same basic ideas. In its most compact form, it is the teaching of two opposite principles: Light and Darkness, their interaction, the mixture out of which the creation is enacted and their final separation at the end of the world.[1]

Among those texts, one of the most important is the cosmogonic account in the Shâbuhragân, written in Middle-Persian at the request of the Sasanian King Shapur I (241-72). The fact that the Shâbuhragân represents a text written by Mani himself has made it one of the major doctrinal scriptures of Eastern Manichaeism, notwithstanding the fact that it is not listed among the canonical books.[2]

Asking questions about the nature of Mani’s dualism inevitably results in a reference to the Shâbuhragân. Composed in the year after Mani left the Elchasaite community, it has the extraordinary gift of a first account of his doctrine. Moreover, it is a treatise that aims to satisfy to the demand of the ruling King of the Aryana Vaej, the land of Iran, and to enlighten him. The content is purely doctrinal. The only exception to this could be the so-called ‘Prologue to the Shâbuhragân’, in which Mani presents himself and justifies his mission as a Prophet. But this is not a hagiographical account. As a self-justification, the Prologue is at the service of the doctrine, proving its very importance and uniqueness.[3]

In that respect, the Cologne Mani-Codex is the opposite of the Shâbuhragân. The scarce doctrinal passages in the CMC are at the service of the hagiographical account. Later doctrinal texts, for instance the ‘Chinese Compendium’, will show the vestiges of the acculturation of the Manichaean communities having to come to terms with the context in which they developed.

 

  1. The question of dualism in Mani’s Shâbuhragân

In the present article, we want to introduce some of the cosmogonic fragments of the Shâbuhragân in order to elucidate the question of dualism, i.e. the nature of the two principles.

Mani taught a strict dualism in which the two principles are held to be opposed in essence. But, all too readily, the two principles are identified with the good spirit (the Kingdom of Light) on the one side and the evil matter, (the Kingdom of Darkness) on the other.

At the same time, those two principles will enter in process of mixture. If in other dualist visions this mixture is to be understood as a form of ‘contamination’, in the vision of Mani mixture is the strategy and the procedure by which the creation can be realized. The creation is thus not simply the work of the evil forces, but a common enterprise to which both principles contribute.

1.1. We wish to investigate following key-issues:

The original principles, in their nature, are not to be understood as spirit and matter, since matter, as a substance, was created through the mixture of their respective essences. In other words, matter was not there from the beginning. Only with the start of the mixture does matter come into being.

Regarding their relationship and their position, the two principles are involved in a dynamic of change, which also results in a change of their nature..

 

  1. In the Manichaean system, the three times are the very expression of this changing relationship. There is the contiguity and the non-interference of the first epoch, followed by the interpenetration and the mixture of the middle epoch. At the end of time, the third epoch, there is not a restoration of the beginning (the first epoch). Rather, a basically new situation has arisen (see article C. Gruwez ‘Paradise, New World and Frashegird in Mani’s Shâbuhragân’).

 

  1. The Shâbuhragân: status of the text and manuscripts

2.1. The Shâbuhragân, as mentioned above, is the only book which has been written by Mani in Middle Persian. But other documents have been composed in Middle Persian by Mani’s disciples and followers. It is, therefore, not easy to determine which of the fragments in Middle Persian language can with certainty be ascribed to the Shâbuhragân.[4] However, there are two main collections of mss to be taken into account :

 

– The cosmogonic fragments edited by Manfred Hutter.[5]

– The eschatological fragments, edited by D.N.Mackenzie.[6]

 

2.2. Other fragments in Middle Persian clearly demonstrate a cosmogonic or eschatological content with a direct reference to the writings of Mani but have, nevertheless, to be considered ‘parallel texts’, i.e. as further interpretations or elucidations by his disciples. Some fragments – both in Middle Persian and in other Iranian languages – provide a paraphrase of the original text, as Werner Sundermann could demonstrate for M 506.[7]

 

2.3. Some fragments, such as the Parthian M 2 II, appear to be a translation of the original Middle Persian. All these so-called ‘parallel’ fragments are of the greatest value because they offer a chance to complete some of the parts that are unfortunately missing, or to at least have a better understanding of certain passages.

 

  1. The cosmogonic fragments

The main corpus of the cosmogonic Shâbuhragân fragments has been edited and translated, accompanied by a commentary of Manfred Hutter. There are two major groups of manuscripts:

  • M 7980 – 84 : consists of 4 double pages and one single page.
  • M 98 I and M 99 I

It is still a matter of discussion whether those two sets of manuscripts can be considered as part of the same text. Manfred Hutter not only assumes that they indeed belong to the same text but that, from the point of view of their content and terminology, there is an intrinsic relationship between the cosmogonic and the eschatological fragments.

Denn unbeschadet der Frage, ob die kosmogonischen Texte tatsächlich zum Shb. gehören oder nicht, darf als sicher gelten, dass M 7980-84 und M 98/99 I direkt auf ein Werk von Mani selbst zurückgehen. Das auffälligste terminologische Element, dass die Zusammengehörigheit dieser Texte nahelegt, ist die Verwendung von Namen’ and also:

‘Die mittelpersischen Texte aus den Turfanfunden sind für die Erforschung des Manichäismus insofern von grosser Wichtigkeit, als sie es ermöglichen, Fragmente von direkt auf Mani selbst zurückgehenden Schriften in Originalform zu identifizieren. Neben Teilen des Shâbuhragân, sind dabei besonders jene kosmogonischen und anthropologischen Texte zu nennen auf deren terminologischen Nähe zum Shb. schon oft verwiesen wurde.[8]

His reasoning is based on the concordance in terminology, particularly in the names used for the different emanations of the Gods and thus adapted to the Iranian background of the King Shapur and his circle.[9] Other scholars, however, e.g. Mary Boyce ( M 7980-7984 possibly from Shâbuhragân’) and Werner Sundermann ( M98/99 I, ‘sehr unsichere Möglichkeit, dass es zum Shb. gehört’) have expressed doubts about this affirmation.[10]

 

  1. The eschatological fragments

In 1979, D.N. Mackenzie published a revised edition and translation of some nine sheets (18 pages, almost 432 lines)) of the Shâbuhragân. This was followed, in 1980, by a more complete version in which he restored the sequence of some parts of the text. He added some new material presented to him by Werner Sundermann and pieced together lines that had been inserted in the wrong context.[11] These fragments enter into the category of ‘eschatological treatise’ and are discussed in the article ‘Paradise, New World and Frashegird in Mani’s Shâbuhragân’.

MacKenzie makes the following observations:

‘It is remarkable that, of many more or less fragmentary Manichaean writings in Iranian languages discovered in Central Asia at the beginning of this century (i.e. 20th century) one of the few texts directly attributable to Mani himself has still (…) not appeared as a full and satisfactory edition with translation. Mani’s Shâbuhragân, in which he summarized his teachings in Persian for the enlightenment of Shâpur I, is known from nine more or less preserved sheets (i.e. of at least two pages each of one MS and some eight or nine smaller fragments.) [12]

 

  1. Conclusion

At least two groups of manuscripts can, with certainty, be attributed to the Shâbuhragân:

  1. The so-called ‘cosmogonical fragments’ M 98 I, M99 I and M 7980-7984
  2. The so-called ‘eschatological fragments’ listed under M 470 + [13]

A third manuscript, the fragment M 49, could be considered as (part of) a ‘Prologue’ to the Shâbuhragân.

Werner Sundermann was able to identify more fragments belonging to M 49 and he published them in his studies on the History of Manichaean Church in the Middle Iranian documents.[14] The content of this manuscript has to do with the mission of Mani and his being sent as an Apostle of Light.

 

  1. Composition of the Shâbuhragân

6.1. Although the text of the Shâbuhragân has come to us in a fragmented condition, with many parts missing, it is nevertheless possible to make a reconstruction of its composition. The structure itself of Mani’s system allows for this with a fair degree of certainty, the three times being the surest guideline

6.2. Mani’s cosmogony describes a series of events intended to explain the actual condition of human beings and the cosmos and to justify the need for salvation. In that regard, a key element is the ‘mixture’. The actual condition of mankind and the world is that of mixture. In his cosmogonic account Mani explains how this mixture came into being.

6.3. Initially there was a condition of non-interference between the two principles and, therefore, no mixture. Due to the irruption and the intervention of the beings of Darkness, followed by the sacrifice of primeval man, successive waves of creational acts evolve.. Each creation represents a stage in the process of mixture.

6.4. Reconstruction of the composition of the Shâbuhragân

Dedication to Shapur I

Introduction. (Prologue)

Self-presentation and self-justification of Mani as a Prophet and Apostle. M. 49 and eventually M 299 a.

As mentioned also by al-Biruni, a chapter in the Shâbuhragân has a similar title to the first chapter of the Kephalaia: ‘About the coming of the Apostle’. Mani contextualizes his manifestation, enumerating the prophets who came before him and he places emphasis on the universalism of his church, as compared to the prophets and apostles who were restricted to one particular religion.

 

– Section I: The Cosmogony

(The interfering of the two principles)

The initial balance between the Realms of Light and of Darkness, uncreated and eternal Principles, is disrupted by an attack from the powers of Darkness. The Father of Greatness, with three emanations, responds to this invasion and evokes three ‘Creations’:

 

First Creation

The first creation has as protagonist the First Man and his five Sons. The five Sons or the soul element remain imprisoned in the realm of darkness, which is the start of the mixture of darkness and light.

 

Second Creation

The second creation has as the central figure the Living Spirit, (Mihryazd)[15] who will create the ten Heavens and the eight Earths.

Here enters the text of M 98 I and M 99 I. Further episodes are related in M 7980 – 7984, including the creation of vegetation and the animal species, the instauration of day and night and the creation of Gehmurd and Murdiyanâg, as the first couple of man and woman on Earth.

 

Third Creation

The third Creation has as the central figure the Third Messenger (Narisah Yazd ) who comes to teach the First Man on Earth the principles of salvation. Some parts of M 7980-84 could also fit into this narrative.

 

– Section II: The Anthropology

( The justification of the need for salvation)

 

Section III: The Eschatology (M 470 +)

(The separation of the two Principles)

Summary

 

Dedication

Prologue                                  M 49

  1. Cosmogony

First Creation

Second Creation           M 98- 99 + M 7980-84

Third Creation             M 7980- 84

  1. Anthropology

III. Eschatology                         M 470 +

  1. The question of the two principles in the Shâbuhragân.

 

7.1. The two principles.

In the MSS 470 + , there is a sentence which seems to function as a running heading and which occurs a considerable number of times: ‘ dw bwn y s (b)whrg n’ i.e. : The two principles of the Shâbuhragân.

Sometimes also the adjective ‘ wzrg’ is added, i.e. ‘great’. This obviously expresses some emphasis: The two great principles.

This repetitive statement also makes it clear that the central topic of the Shâbuhragân is nothing less than the two great Principles (‘bwn’ in fact means ‘root’ or ‘seed’) and the account of their evolving through the three times:

– the successive creations of the Gods and the Cosmos

– the creation of Man and the revelation of his need for salvation

– the creation of a New Paradise and Frashegird

  • The creation.

Although we do not have available any MSS belonging to the Shâbuhragân in which the initial status of the two principles is described, M 98/99 I gives a detailed description of some episodes of the creation process, more specific of the second creation.

With the first page of M 98 I, we enter ‘in medias res’ when the Spiritus Vivens, ( M.P./ Mihr Yazd) together with the Mother of Life, ( M.P.: Mâdar-e zindagân) is engaged in the process of creating the spheres of heaven and the heavenly bodies, the planets and the Sun and the Moon. (M. 98 I R 1 ff) .

The substance out of which the creation is performed is the mixture (gumezishn, ‘gwmyzyshn’) of Light and Darkness. How this mixture, which was not there at the beginning of the creation myth, has come about, can without doubt be found in the preceding chapters of the Shâbuhragân which are, unfortunately, still missing.

 

7.3. Gumezishn, the mixture.

7.3.1. M 98 / 99 I :

The cosmogonic texts M 98 / 99 I describe some particular episodes of the second creation, in which Mihryazd creates, among other things, the ten Heavens and the eight Earths, the Sun and the Moon. He binds the seven Planets and the two Dragons to the lowest Heaven and prepares for the creation of the new Paradise. Further, they describe in detail how some of the various Earths are being created with columns, walls and gates and how a dungeon is being prepared in which to imprison all the demons and Archonts at the end of times.

7.3.2. M 7980 – 84 :

The very first sentences of M 7980-84 are a summary of what has been described in full in M 98 / 99 I. As Manfred Hutter has shown, this does not mean that M 7980-94 as a text is simply a continuation of M 98 / 99 I. Rather, it demonstrates the interconnection of the two MSS regarding their content. M 7980-84 is divided into six distinct didactic ‘lectures’ or ‘Lehrrede’, each with a heading that refers to their respective content.[16] These titles suffice to give an initial idea of the content of M 7980-84.

  • The teaching about the physical nature
  • The teaching about the God Narisah
  • The teachings about the positions (of the Sun) and the days
  • The teaching about the diminution of the Day and the Night
  • The teaching about Gêhmurd and Murdiyânag
  • The teaching about the Soul and the Body

 

Although six chapters have to be distinguished, the narrative of M 7980-84 once more places us in the midst of the creation process.

The first teaching introduces the different phases of the second creation, where Mihryazd is engaged in building the ten Heavens and the eight Earths.

The second teaching describes the seduction of the Archonts with the result that light particles are set free so that vegetation and animal life can start to develop.

The third and the fourth teaching are the so-called ‘astronomical fragments’ which, among other things, give a description of the installation and rotation of the planets and the instauration of the cycle of day and night.

The fifth teaching tells about the creation of Gêhmurd and Mardiyânag, the first man and woman on earth, as related by Az, the highest in rank under the Archonts or demons.

Finally, the sixth teaching, with the title ‘About the Soul and the Body’, could, according to Manfred Hutter, be in fact part of the instructions given by Xradeshahryazd (Jesus the Splendour) to Gêhmurd.

Thus, both MSS present an account starting at the second creation up to the creation of Gêhmurd and Mardiyânag which does not cover the totality of the creation process.

What is known as ‘gumezishn’, i.e. ‘the mixture’ is essentially part of this process. Mixture has to be understood as an ongoing activity in which both sides take an active part. These are the beings who interfere as envoys from the Kingdom of Light and the Archonts who cooperate in their characteristic way in the realization of the mixture. The result of this joint activity is not a product in the sense of a substance.

But this continual interpenetration of each other’s ‘sphere’ results in a condition, ‘mixture’. This is not a substance but a condition, ‘ein Zustand’. Moreover, mixture as a condition does not offer any fixed stability.

Summary

8.1. Mixture in the second creation.

The two groups of cosmogonic fragments refer to the middle stages of the creation. This means that the process of mixture is still in full action, since it will be followed by a third creation.

8.2. Mixture as an activity.

– Both principles – through their emissaries – participate in the creation process.

– The nature of their activity is in accordance with the nature of their being.

– The light gods purify, i.e. they undo the result of the mingling.

– The demons devour and integrate the light elements.

8.3. Mixture as a result.

The result of mixture is an interpenetration of two opposite substances. In other words: impurity.

8.4. Gêhmurd and Murdiyânag.

At the end of the second creation, Az creates the first human pair out of the mixture.

  1. Selected fragments

1. Purification

 9.1.1. Purification and the intervention of Mihryazd in M 98 / 99 I

– ‘Aus der Vermischung gereinigt’ M 98 I R line 10

– ‘Aus derselben Ausläuterung’ M 98 I V line 27

– ‘Und diesseits von diesen Gräben machte er zwei andere gemischte Erden’ M 99 I     V lines 81-82

– ‘Und um dorthin den Schmutz der Finsternis der vier Regionen zu fegen, errichtete er zwölf Höllen, je drei in einer Gegend’. M 99 I V lines 91-92

 

9.1.2. Commentary

Mihryazd, as the principal actor on behalf of the Kingdom of Light during the Second Creation, has to purify the outcome of the creation process.

Purification means undoing the mixture. The condition of mixture is defined as a condition of impurity.

 

9.1.3. Purification in M 7980 – 84

Wind (und) Licht wird er reinigen. Und … wird er einsetzen und Wasser (und) Feuer reinigen. Und sie werden immer in gleicher Gesinnung und gleicher Kraft zusammen sein.’

M 7980 IR ii lines 427 – 433

9.1.4. Commentary

Mihryazd has to counteract the effects of mixture in the four elements by purifying them. This is in order that they become equal in intention and strength .

The condition of mixture

9.2.1. Selected fragments

‘…das… hineingemischt wurde, als Ohrmuzd und Ahriman miteinander kämpften.’

M 7980 R I lines 1-5

‘damit sie (the demons) sich mit vereinten Körpern zusammenmischten und Drachenkinder aus ihnen geboren würden und damit Az jene Kinder ihnen wegnehme und fresse und zwei Geschöpfe, einen Mann und eine Frau, daraus bilde.’

M 7984 I R ii 33-V ii / M 7982 R -V / M 7983 I R- V Lines 913-917

‘Und sie mischten sich mit vereinten Körpern zusammen. Und aus jenem Gemisch, das sie (die Ungeheuer) angezogen hatten, aus jenen Kindern der Mazan und der Azrêshtâr, die sie (Az) gefressen hatten, formten und machten sie einen Körper in männlichen Gestalt, mit Knochen, Nerven, Fleisch, Adern und Haut aufgrund ihrer eigenen Begierde.

M 7984 I R ii 33-V ii / M 7982 R -V / M 7983 I R- V lines 948-956

‘Und von jener Lichtheit und Schönheit der Götter, die von den Früchten und Knospen mit jenen Kindern der Mazan gemischt war, wurde ein Teil in diesem Körper als Seele gefesselt’

M 7984 I R ii 33-V ii / M 7982 R -V / M 7983 I R- V lines 959 -964

‘Und als jenes Geschöpf geboren war, da nannte sie ihn ‘Erster Mensch’, nämlich Gêhmurd.’

M 7984 I R ii 33-V ii / M 7982 R -V / M 7983 I R- V lines 1014-1016

‘Und von jener Lichtheit und Schönheit der Götter, die von den Früchten und Knospen mit jenen der Mazan-Missgeburten vermischt war, wurde (ein Teil) in diesem Körper als Seele gefesselt.’

M 7984 I R ii 33-V ii / M 7982 R -V / M 7983 I R- V lines 1038 – 1044

‘Und wenn er (i.e.: the first human being) geboren wird, dann wird er auch an Körper und Seele von eben dieser ‘Missgeburt der Dews und von der Vermischung der Götter ernährt ‘

M 7983 II R i lines 1204 – 1213

‘Und in sie (i.e; : die Pflanzen, Bäumen, Kräuter…) mischte Az ihr eigenes Ich hinein.’ M 7981 I R i verse 241-24

‘Und gleich jenen lüsternen und phallophoren (Samen) fiel Az vom Himmel auf die Erde herab, auf das Trockene und auf das Feuchte. Und sie war mit allen Arten der Vegetation und mit den Mazan-Ungeheuern ihres eigenes Wesens zusammen.’

M 7980-84 II V i lines   275-280

‘Und erst dann, wenn jene Lichtheit und Schönheit der Götter, die Ahrmen und die Dews verschlungen haben, und die (jetzt) im ganzen Kosmos und in den Dews und Peris Leid erfährt und sich windet, danach gereinigt und zum Höchsten empor gezogen wird und Frashegird sein wird, dann werden Az und Ahrmen, die Dews und die Peris in jenem Gefängnis ewig bleiben (und) unaufhörlich gefesselt werden.’

9.2.2. Commentary

There is an intensification of the mixing process with the female demon Az as the main protagonist.

– Az mixes her own soul with the light substance (‘Light and Beauty of the Gods’ of various plants).

– Az mixes with the monstrous Mazan beings, who start to devour the plants and to copulate between them (= to mingle).

– Demons and monstrous beings, after copulating (= mixing) abort their offspring.

– Az devours their offspring and creates the first man and the first woman.

– Az takes the mixture (light substance in plants, mixed with her soul and Mazan-abortions) and places this mixture in the newly created body as a soul.

We can follow the mixture process as a sequence and observe how with every successive step more darkness is involved and, as a result, there is an increase in density. Only when the density reaches a final stage, the body of Gêhmurd and of Murdiyânag is created with its five ‘physical’ or bodily elements : Bones, Nerves, Flesh, Veins and Skin.

Once the body of the first human pair has been created out of the mixture, and at the very end of the process of mixture, then Az takes a part of the mixture that is composed of ‘the Light and the Beauty of the Gods’ mixed with the Mazan abortions, and fixes it in the body to function as a soul.

Some conclusions

 

  1. Mixture is a process that occurs between beings. It takes place on an essential level.
  2. Those beings belong to realms whose nature is radically opposite.
  3. Those beings or essences are not static but are in perpetual movement.
  4. This movement finds its expression in their various activities. Even when described in terms of aggression and enforcement, we should not take these images too literally. The field where these attacks happen is the realm of being. The metaphor of war strategy is an expression of what happens when one being intrudes into the realm of another.
  5. The dynamics of the mixture are also radically opposed. Throughout the entire procedure, there is an upward and a downward movement that is also expressed in various activities on both sides.
  6. Both sides participate in the creation of the cosmos and the earth and in the creation of human beings. An example of this is the seduction by the God Narisah (Kingdom of Light) which incites Az (Kingdom of Darkness) to create a human pair. While Az takes the initiative to mix her own soul with the plants, herbs and flowers, the God Nariseh takes the initiative to show himself to Az alternately as a male or a female apparition.
  7. Finally, the most revealing aspect of those selected fragments is the fact that both sides have their active part in the origin of matter. The chapter in M 7980-84 with the heading ‘The teaching about Gêhmurd and Murdiyânag’ is no less than the description of how, through successive degrees of mixture (which is a composition of both darkness and light), ultimately the physical body is created and that only afterwards this is endowed with a soul.
  8. A final conclusion of these observations is that, throughout the Second Creation, representatives of both realms are involved in opposing activities, with the final result that the human being is created with a material body.
  9. This means that the principle of Darkness cannot be identified with matter, since matter is the outcome of a process in which both principles are engaged.
  10. The unique character of Mani’s dualism finds its full expression in the description of mixture, in which both principles and not only the powers of darkness, are involved. Finally both are ‘responsible’ for the creation of matter.

 

 

 

Christine Gruwez

June 2009

[1] The cosmogonic account in the Shabuhragan can be reconstructed from fragments published by F.W.K. Müller and by W. B. Henning. Numerous other Middle Persian and Parthian fragments of cosmogonic texts have been published by Carl Salemann.

[2] ‘Daraus ergibt sich, dass das Shâbuhragân unter den erhaltenen iranischen Texten zum Manichäismus das höchste Alter aufweisen kann und praktisch die ipsissima vox des Propheten wiedergibt.’ Manfred Hutter, in ‘Das Manichäische Urdrama des Lichtes, Teil 2, Das Erlösungsgeschehen im Maichäisch-Iranischen Mythos, p.157

 

[3] ‘Für uns ist Manis Shâbuhragân jenes seiner Werke, in dem die wichtigsten autobiographischen Angaben gemacht würden. (…) Es versteht sich, dass in dieser Darstellung der Grundlehren einer neuen Religion vor dem Landesherren auch für den Stifter Anlass zur Selbstvorstellung bestand.’ Werner Sündermann, in ‘Studien zur kirchengeschichtlichen Literatur der iranischen Manichäer, I’, p. 82

 

[4] For a list of the fragments see among others: Mary Boyce, A Catalogue of the Iranian Manuscripts in Manichaean Script in the German Turfan Collection, Berlin 1960. and ‘The Manichaean literature in Middle Irania’n, Handbuch der Orientalistik, I-4, Iranistik, 2, Literatur, Lfg 1, London, 1968
Also S.N.C. Lieu, Manichaeism in Central Asia and China, NHMS 45, Leiden, New York, Köln, 1998 and W. Sundermann, Mittelpersische und parthische kosmogonische und Parabeltexte der Manichäer BTT 4, Berlin 1973

[5] Manfred Hutter, Manis Kosmogonische Shâbuhragân-Texte, Edition, Kommentar und literaturgeschichtliche Einordnung der manichäisch-mittelpersischen Handschriften M 98/99 I und M 7980-7984, 1992, Wiesbaden.

[6] D. N. MacKenzie, Mani’s Shäbuhragân, BSOAS XLII, 1979, BSOAS XLIII, 1980

[7] Werner Sundermann, Mitteliranische manichäische Texte kirchengeschichtlichen Inhalts, Berlin, 1981, Berliner Turfantexte XI

[8] Manfred Hutter, in Das Manichäische Urdrama des Lichtes, Teil II, pp 158-159

and ‘Sprachliche und terminologische Betrachtungen zu M 98 / 99 I und M 7980-84, Beziehungen zwischen M 7980-84 und dem Shâbuhragân.’in Studia Manichaica; II Internationaler Kongress zum Manichäismus, 6-12 August 1989 St. Augustin/Bonn, Otto Harrassowitz- Wiesbaden 1992, pp. 285 ff

[9] See among other texts: ‘ Aufgrund der Gemeinsamkeiten in Terminologie und Inhalt, die zwischen M 98/99 I und M 7980-84 bestehen, darf man mit Recht annehmen, dass in diesen beiden Manuskripten Teile eins und desselben Werkes Manis vorliegen.’ : Manfred Hutter, Shâbuhragân-Texte, , Fragen der literarischen Überlieferung und Einordnung, Die Zuordnung der kosmogonischen Texte zum Shâbuhragân, in Manis Kosmogonische Shâbuhragân-Texte, p.124 ff

See also : Manfred Hutter, Sprachliche und terminologische Betrachtungen zu M 98 / 99 I und M 7980-84, in Studia Manichaica II Internationaler Kongress zum Manichäismus, Otto Harrassowitz, 1992, pp 285 ff :

‘Drei Fragen werden wir dabei nachgehen:

  • Kann man M 98 / 99 I und M 7980-84 einer einzigen Schrift Manis zuweisen?
  • 2) Was lässt sich über die Authentizität der einzelnen Kapitel in M 7980-84 aussagen?
  • 3)Welche Argumente lassen sich für eine Zusammengehörigkeit der Shb. mit den hier behandelten kosmogonischen Texten beibringen?

[10] Manfred Hutter, in Das Manichäische Urdrama des Lichtes, Teil II, pp 158-159

and ‘Sprachliche und terminologische Betrachtungen zu M 98 / 99 I und M 7980-84, Beziehungen zwischen M 7980-84 und dem Shâbuhragân.’in Studia Manichaica; II Internationaler Kongress zum Manichäismus, 6-12 August 1989 St. Augustin/Bonn, Otto Harrassowitz- Wiesbaden 1992, pp. 285 ff

 

[11] ‘Für uns ist Manis Shâbuhragân jenes seiner Werke, in dem die wichtigsten autobiographischen Angaben gemacht würden. (…) Es versteht sich, dass in dieser Darstellung der Grundlehren einer neuen Religion vor dem Landesherren auch für den Stifter Anlass zur Selbstvorstellung bestand.’ Werner Sündermann, in ‘Studien zur kirchengeschichtlichen Literatur der iranischen Manichäer, I’, p. 82

[12] D.N. MacKenzie, 1979

[13] For a complete list of the fragments ranged under M 470 + see D.N. MacKenzie, Mani’s Shâbuhragân, in BSOAS, Vol. LXII, 1979 p. 503

[14] Werner Sundermann, Mitteliranische manichäische Texte kirchengeschichtlichen Inhalts, Berlin, 1981, Berliner Turfantexte XI

[15] Mihryazd, Middle Persian, (Parthian : wad ziwandag) is the same as the Living Spirit, one of the main protagonists during the Second Creation;

For an overview of the Middle-Iranian and Parthian names of the gods involved in the stages of the creation process, see : Mary Boyce, A Reader in Manichaean Middle Persian and Parthian, , 1973, 8-10

[16] ‘Die Unterschiede in der Formulierung zwischen M 98/99 I und M 7980-84 sind zwar nicht unüberbrückbar, aber doch in Kleinigkeiten bemerkenswert, die zumindest eigenartig ercheinen würden, wenn beide Manuskripte ein und demselben Buch Manis angehören würden. Obwohl die inhaltliche Zusammengehörigkeit der beiden Fragmente keineswegs geleugnet werden darf, scheint mir eine literarische Zusammengehörigkeit der Texte unwahrscheinlich. M 98/99 verliert dadurch für die Beschäftigung mit der iranischen Ausprägung der Kosmologie Manis allerdings kaum an Bedeutung, da Mani sich wohl in ihr als einer einzigen Schrift über kosmogonische Fragen geäußert hat, wie auch an einigen von W. Sundermann edierten Texten gesehen werden kann. ‘ Manfred Hutter, in Sprachliche und terminologische Betrachtungen, Studia Manichaica, op. cit. p.p 290-291

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